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How to Make Different Types of Paints - Emulsion and Gloss

A detailed guide in paint making both gloss and emulsion paints
Today, paints are used for interior and exterior house-painting, boats, automobiles, planes, appliances, furniture, and many other places where protection and aesthetic appreciation are desired. Paint is an essential commodity that does not just beautify but also serves as a protective measure on any surface it is applied. Thus there is always a demand for it at any place any time.

This is an opportunity to own your own paint production industry. With our wide experience in the manufacturing of different kind paints, both emulsion (water-based)) and gloss (oil-based), here you will get to know all our formulae and techniques so you can produce different types of paints, either you are producing for your own use or for commercial purposes.

Here, we offer you an ebook that will teach you the following:

  • The various chemicals used in paint production
  • The individual function(s) of each of the chemicals
  • The quantities of each chemical that make a drum of paint
  • The procedures used in mixing the different chemicals so as to achieve the desired result
  • The various equipment and tools used in paint production
  • The marketing strategies for new paint producers
  • The general guidelines for paint production.

The production cost is very low but the outcome is quite profitable, so paint production is a great business opportunity you should consider. Some people have the wrong notion that you need a large factory or capital to start this business. That is not true; you can start producing paints even in your backyard. All you need is the capital to get you the required chemicals, the packaging materials and a small mixing machine if you don't want to mix manually.

There are two (2) broad classes of paints, namely:

  1. Oil-based paint
  2. Water based paint

This book will give you all that you need to know about producing any of the classes above. You’ll get to know the details of all the chemicals required for making either oil-based paint or water-based paint. Each of the classes above still has different types. This book gives you different formulae for different types of water based and oil based paints.

Types of Water-Based Paints Covered In This Ebook

Water-based paints as the name implies is a type of paint in which the carrier solvent is water. In this ebook, we discuss 12 different types of water-based paints, their chemical constituents, formulae and production procedures.

The different types of water-based paints that we cover in this ebook are:

  1. Emulsion Paint
  2. Textured Paint
  3. Flextured Paint
  4. Satin or Nylon Paint
  5. POP Paint
  6. Matt Eggshell
  7. Flex Coat Paint
  8. Textured Matt Paint
  9. Marble Trowel Paint
  10. Marble Effect Paint
  11. Base Coat Paint
  12. Graffitex Paint

Production of Water-Based Paints

Raw Materials

Paint is composed of pigments, solvents, resins, and various additives. The pigments give the paint colour; solvents make it easier to apply; resin seems to function as a binding agent and helps the paint to dry, and additives serve as everything from fillers to anti-fungicidal agents. Hundreds of different pigments, both natural and synthetic, exist. The basic white pigment is titanium dioxide, selected for its excellent concealing properties, and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black. Other pigments used to make paint include iron oxide and cadmium sulfide for reds, metallic salts for yellows and oranges, and iron blue and chrome yellows for blues and greens.

Solvents are various low viscosity, volatile liquids. They include petroleum, mineral spirits and aromatic solvents such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones, and acetone. The natural resins most commonly used are linseed, coconut oil, and soybean oil, while alkyds, acrylics, epoxies, and polyurethanes number among the most popular synthetic resins. Additives serve many purposes. Some, like calcium carbonate and aluminium silicate, are simply fillers that give the paint body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics in paint, such as the thixotropic agents that give the paint its smooth texture, driers, anti-settling agents (called dispersants in this book), anti-skinning agents, defoamers, and a host of others that enable the paint to cover well and last long.

This manual is directed towards production and formulation of emulsion paint (water –based paint) and gloss (oil-based paints) from raw materials that can be sourced locally. The high demand for paints for protective and decorative purposes has encouraged the development of different types of equipment for the manufacturing operation.

The following are the chemical/constituents we use in the production of paint:

  1. Water
  2. Titanium dioxide (used only for the production of white paint)
  3. Fillers
  4. Colourants
  5. Resins
  6. Preservatives
  7. ThickenersHydrosol
  8. Marble Dust
  9. Acrydext/ Acrylic
  10. Dispersant
  11. Driers
  12. K14
  13. Buffer
  14. Defoamer
  15. Anti-skin (MEKO)
  16. Bama cork

Functions of Each of the Chemicals Above

Solvent

Solvent serves as a vehicle for the main ingredients of the paint. Solvents also increase the overall volume of the paint. Solvents may be:

  • Water: for water-based paints;
  • Petrol, kerosene or toluene: for oil-based paints.

For water-based paint commonly called emulsion, water is used to mix all the chemicals together. It must not be hot water. You can use any type of clean water with normal water temperature. However, soft water is preferable in paint making because it helps to mix the paints more easily.

Resin

This is the binding and forming part. The resin used could be polyvinyl acetate (PVA), for water-based paints; or Alkyd Resin, for oil-based paints. However, there are different types of PVA, namely: acrylic resin (polyvinyl acrylate), Acrona PVA, and Vinumal PVA (used for water-based paints).

P.V.A is very important in paint making. I guess you might have seen a situation where after painting a building when you rub your hand on the surface the paint would seem to flake off or stain your hands. That is as a result of ill usage of P.V.A.

Either acrylic, acronal P.V.A, or vinamul P.V.A is used as a binder for water-based paints. It is the resin used and the quantity used that determines the quality of the paint. Correct usage will prevent your paint from staining (chalking or rubbing off easily when the painted wall or object is touched).

Alkyd resin is used as a binder for oil-based paints.

In my experience, some big names in the paint manufacturing industry do not even know how to use resin correctly or they are probably trying to cut cost at the expense of the quality of the final product. That’s why most emulsion paints in the market today will stain your body if you mistakenly rub your body against a painted wall or object. But do not worry, I will tell you how to use it correctly and who knows you might become the next consultant in the paint making industry.

Titanium dioxide (Titan)

This chemical is used majorly in the production of white paint. It is, however, necessary in various lower quantities, in the production of other coloured paints. It is a whitening chemical in powder form. It performs the function of making sure that your white paint is shining and not dull. This is the secret of some big names in the painting industry. We shall give you the ratio down the line.

Fillers

These are components that give body to the paint. They include calcium carbonate (commonly called Calcium by the market people), and kaolin clay (a white powdery substance which is also used as a filler in soap production to reduce cost). Let me talk about calcium carbonate a little, so you have an idea of what it's about.

Calcium Carbonate (a filling agent in paint)
The market people normally call it calcium, i.e. without the addition of carbonate to the name. This means you can go to any shop that sells paint chemicals and ask for calcium, it’s the same as calcium carbonate. This chemical is also in powder form. It is packaged in bags and they write CalCo or the chemical formula, CaCO3 on it.

Note that calcium carbonate is of two types. We have dolomite and calcite. Both are good but dolomite is recommended if you are producing pure white paint and calcite is better in off white (dirty white) paint production.

Colourants (Pigments)

A colourant is a colouring agent that adds colour and body to your paint. It comes in different types of colours usually called primary colours. Every other colour is obtained from a combination of the primary colours. Colouring is one of the most important aspects of paint making procedures. It involves the ability to mix some colours to get the desired result. It is not difficult at all if you have initiative and artistic eye.

Colourants come in any of these colours called primary colours. They are yellow (we painters call it cream), Red, Black, Blue, and Green. All other colours are gotten from a combination of two or more of these.

What about White paint? You might ask. Well, we do not need to have a pure white colour because we make our paints with calcium carbonate (CalCo or scientifically CaCO3) and it gives us white naturally. In fact, once you put your calcium carbonate in water you get white paint. I hope that is clear. To make the white shiny, bright and attractive, you add titanium dioxide.

Pigments could be colour oxide for coloured paints or titanium dioxide for white paints. We shall cover how to mix colours to get a particular result. But for now, just know that colours can be found in paste or oxide. When we say colours are in paste; we mean that they are in semi-solid or condensed liquid form (like your pomade), when they are in oxide it means they are in dust form (like your face powder). A colour like cream has both oxide and paste. Red and black are mostly in oxide, green and blue are in paste form.

For those who might be wondering which one to use between the yellow oxide and yellow paste, I suggest that if you want the colour you are producing to be deep yellow like MTN colour, you should use paste, otherwise use oxide.

Combination of colours will get you any colour you like. However, the formula for this combination has no definition as you can use only one colourant to produce about 3 paints depending on the quantity you put.

In general, if you are looking for off-white colour, add a small quantity of yellow oxide to your paint. For light calabash, colour use yellow oxide and a little red in the ratio of [details available in the manual]. Indeed it is more of creativity. But the secret is that you make a correct measurement of the quantity of colours you put so that all the colours of your company will be the same.

CAUTION: You MUST dilute the colours very well with a little water before you apply it to your paint. For example, if you get a red oxide, pour a cup of water in a different container and mix thoroughly. If not, your paint will have dotted stains as you roll it on the wall.

Colour Combination in Paint Making

The knowledge of colour combination cannot be overemphasized in paint production. As state earlier colour is divided into:

  1. Primary colour
  2. Secondary colour
  3. Tertiary colour

Primary colour: These are the basic colours which include Red, Blue and Yellow.

Secondary Colours: These are the combination of two or more primary colours to achieve the desired colour. For example,

Blue + Yellow = Green

Red + Yellow = Orange

Red + Blue = Purple

Yellow + White = Cream

Blue + White = Sky Blue

White + Black = Grey

Little Red + More Blue = Lilac

Yellow + Black = Beige

Red + Black = Brown

Red + Yellow + Black = Abuja Brown


Tertiary Colours: These are the combination of two or more secondary colours or the combination of a secondary colour and primary colour to give the desired colour. For example,

Green + Yellow = Lemon

Green + Red = Brown

Orange + Blue = Brown

Cream +Little Brown = Abuja Brown

Note: Most colours, be it primary or secondary are now present in the market, meaning you don’t need to stress yourself mixing primary or secondary colours to get a desired coloured.

Preservatives

These are chemicals that help to prolong the life span of paints. Preservatives are mainly used for water-based paints. The chemicals used as preservatives may include but not limited to the following:

  • Ammonia
  • Formalin
  • Anticide
  • Sodium Benzoate
  • K14

Preservatives increase the shelf life of the produced paint. Permit me to talk about ammonia in particular.

Ammonia
This is a strong pungent smelling liquid that smells exactly like urine. Apart from serving as a biocide, ammonia is also used to make the paints more durable i.e. it serves as a preservative agent.

Thickeners

As the name implies, they help in thickening the paints. Examples of chemicals used as thickeners are:

  • Natrosol (used mainly for water-based paints)
  • Easy Gel (used mainly for oil-based paints)
  • Acrytext
  • G14
  • Bama cork

Again, I will like to talk about natrosol, acrytext and bama cork a bit.

Natrosol: This is a thickening agent that helps to hold the paints together and prevents the pigment from settling down. It’s majorly used for water-based paints. Its correct usage makes the paint more durable on the wall.

Acrytext: Acrytext is also a thickening agent. It holds the seemingly watery paint together.

Bama cork: It does the function of natrosol (which is thickening). If you use bama cork you do not need to use natrosol.

Buffer

Buffer makes the thickener to react fast.

Biocide

These are chemicals that kill microorganisms like algae, fungi, and that do not allow grass to grow on the surface of painted walls. Examples of biocide include ammonia and anticide.

Defoamer

This chemical reduces foaming in paints during the production process.

Anti-skin (MEKO)

This chemical serves as an anti-caking agent

Brighteners

These chemicals help to correct the dullness of paints, they help in bringing out the brightness of paints, especially for white and light coloured paints. You don’t use them for dark colour paint production. Examples of brighteners are hydrosol (for white and light colour paints), and aluminum silicate (for white colour paints only). Let me talk about hydrosol a little.

Hydrosol: As stated above this is one of the chemicals that integrates the colours and brings out the best in them. It is used to correct dullness in paints and it is used for both white and light coloured paints production.

Marble Dust

Marble dust is only required if you want to produce a type of paint called textcoat. A textcoat paint is a paint that has kind of rough texture that appears as if stone or sand particles were mixed with the paint before the wall is painted.

There are two types of marble dust, namely the rough one and the smooth one. The type you choose, whether rough or smooth, is determined by what you want to achieve. If you want sandy textcoat i.e. the one without lining, you use only rough type. However, the combination of both in the same ratio gives a better result

Dispersants

These chemicals help to reduce the tendency of solid materials in the paint to settle at the bottom of the mixer during production and even after the paint has been packaged for sale. Without the dispersants, the solid constituents of paints will settle at the bottom over time. Examples of chemicals used as dispersants include genopur and Calgon.

Apart from functioning as a dispersant, genopur also functions as a kind of fragrance that does the function of giving the paipaintsnter a scintillating perfume as he does his job.

Driers

These are catalysts which speed up the drying of paints. They carry oxygen into the paint and make it dry through oxidation, polymerization and condensation. Examples of chemicals used as driers are:

  • Texanol, for water-based paints
  • Mixed drier, for oil-based paints

Steps to making Different Types of  Paints

step by steps guide in paint making business

Like I stated earlier, in this ebook you're going to learn everything you need to know to produce the following types of paints:

Water-Based Paints

  • Ordinary emulsion paints
  • POP emulsion paint
  • Textured paint (textcoat)
  • Flextured paint
  • Satin (nylon) paint
  • Matt eggshell paint
  • Flexcoat paint
  • How to do marble effect with paint
  • Production of base coat
  • Production of textured matt
  • Production of marble trowel
  • Production of graffitext

Production of Gloss paints (Oil-Based Paints)

  • Gloss paint
  • Varnish
  • Undercoat
  • Anti-rust
 Lastly, you will learn where to buy chemicals and other needed equipment for production process and packaging. The general guidelines for successful operation and marketing strategies are also covered. 

How Much is the Ebook?

Good question! I lot of people I've come across in the course of searching for where to learn how to produce all these charged me as high as NGN30,000 - NGN50,000. There was a time I wanted to buy a video on the production of gloss paint only, the seller told me to bring NGN35,000 (Thirty-Five Thousand Naira) just for one video.

I'm not going to charge you as high as that because I really want you to start as early as possible. So, how much are you going to pay to get this book?

For a limited time period only, I'm offering it for a meagre sum of NGN7,500 (Seven Thousand Five Hundred Naira only). This offer is open to the first 5 persons to buy it. After the first 5 persons, the price will go up to NGN20,000. 

How to Order

To order for the manual, pay the sum of NGN 7,500 to the following account details:
  • Account Name: Alexander Ubokwe
  • Account Number: 0129351105
  • Bank: GTBank
After payment, send an SMS to 08187664783 with the following details
  • Name of depositor
  • Amount Paid
  • Material paid for (Paint making manual)
  • Date of payment
  • Your email address.
Once I receive your message, I will send the manual to your email address provided.

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